Intra-Household Roles in Cocoa Production in Ondo State, Nigeria

  • Oluwole Matthew Akinnagbe Federal University of Technology, Akure
  • Tosin Precious Adeniran Federal University of Technology, Akure
  • Adebayo Adeniyi Adeniran Federal College of Agriculture, Ibadan


The study examined intra-household roles in cocoa production in Ondo State, Nigeria for enhance capabilities of farm families. Multistage sampling procedure was used to select a sample of 70 respondents. Primary data were collected with the aid of structured interview from the cocoa farmers. Data were analysed using frequency, percentage and mean. Results reveal that family labour (81.4%) was the main sources of labour used in cocoa production and majority (51.4%) used their personal saving as the major sources of fund for cocoa production. Fellow farmers (90.0% and radio (62.9%) were the main sources of information on cocoa production. Men were involved in planting cocoa seed at the nursery (90.0%). Women were more involved in assembling of harvested pods (68.6%). Men and women were more involved in transplanting of seedlings permanent site (84.3%, 81.4%) and removal of beans from the pod (72.2%, 80.0%). Men and male children were more involved in preparation of shade at the nursery (92.9%), land clearing at permanent site (100.0%, 81.4%), weeding (97.1%, 81.4%), spraying of herbicides (97.1%, 75.7%), spraying of pesticides (100.0%, 78.6%), removal of mistletoe (98.6%; 81.4%) and harvesting (100.0%; 84.3%). Women and female children were more involved in sun-drying of cocoa beans (82.9%, 90.0%). All (men, women, male and female children) were more involved in nursery maintenance (92.9%, 80.0%, 78.8%, 74.3%). The major constraints to cocoa production were unavailability of labour to carry out essential farm activities (=3.56), unfavourable prevailing weather condition (=3.54) and poor extension agent-farmers contact (=3.51).   The study recommends that issues relating to cocoa production should be addressed to specific individual household members performing such roles in order to improve the capabilities of farm families.

Author Biography

Oluwole Matthew Akinnagbe, Federal University of Technology, Akure
How to Cite
AKINNAGBE, Oluwole Matthew; ADENIRAN, Tosin Precious; ADENIRAN, Adebayo Adeniyi. Intra-Household Roles in Cocoa Production in Ondo State, Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Extension, [S.l.], v. 22, n. 3, p. 77-86, oct. 2018. ISSN 2408-6851. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 04 aug. 2021.
General Extension and Teaching Methods