Impact of Agricultural Extension Services on Cereal Production among Rural Farmers in Bhutan


  • Bhakta Shangshon Royal University of Bhutan
  • Anan Polthanee
  • Chaicharn Wongsamun
  • Patcharee Suriya


cereal production, farmers’ participation in extensions


This study explored impact of agricultural extension services on cereal production. Data were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire from a random sample of 262 farmers from four regions (east, west, north, and south) in Bhutan. Farmers assessed the impact of extension services on five aspects of cereal production (cereal seed, social, environmental, production, and marketing aspects). Percentages and an ordered logistic model were used to analyze the data. The study found a low level of farmers’ participation in extension services. The social aspect of cereal production was the most impacted by the extension programmes, while the marketing aspect was the least impacted. The farmers’ cultivated dry land (Coeff. = 0.21) and wetland (Coeff. = 0.72), their participation in extension services (Coeff. = 0.61), and the extra labour (Coeff. = 0.24) significantly contributed to cereal production. The provision of effective and high-quality extension programs by extension agents is critical for smallholder farmers to enhance their agricultural production.

Author Biographies

Bhakta Shangshon, Royal University of Bhutan

Bhakta Bdr Shangshon is an assistant professor at the College of Natural Resources, Royal University of Bhutan.

Anan Polthanee

Anan Polthanee is a professor in agronomy at the Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Thailand.

Chaicharn Wongsamun

Chaicharn Wongsamun is an associate professor at the Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Thailand.

Patcharee Suriya

Patcharee Suriya is an assistant professor at the Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Thailand.


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How to Cite

Shangshon, B., Polthanee, A. ., Wongsamun , C. ., & Suriya , P. . (2023). Impact of Agricultural Extension Services on Cereal Production among Rural Farmers in Bhutan. Journal of Agricultural Extension, 27(1), 13–26. Retrieved from



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