Guides to authors

Guides to authors

Submission of manuscript

Articles should be type-written in English, double-spaced on only one side of A4 (210 by 297mm) paper and not more than 15 double-spaced pages. ( using one-inch margins with Arial Theme and 12-point), inclusive of references, tables, figures and appendixes. Articles should be uploaded on the Journal website ( JAE reserves the right to ask authors to shorten excessively long papers before they are entered into the review process. However, JAE recognizes that papers intended to make very extensive contributions or that require additional space for data presentation or references may require more pages.

  • At the point of submission each article should indicate on  the first page the title of the manuscript
  • Capitalise the first letter of each word of the title
  • At the point of submission do not include the authors' name, address, email and phone number inside the manuscript to allow blind review.  Include all the authors and the associated information of each author in the metadata. JAE discourages the practice of including additional authors' names after acceptance of an article.
  • After acceptance,  include all the authors in the metadata inside the paper one by one indicating the name (surname and first names in full), address, email,  phone number, and ORCID number
  • Type surname and other names in full followed by address below the title
  • Capitalise the first letters of each name
  • The names of the author(s) should be followed by the abstract and subsequent parts of the article.

Section heading

  • Capitalised only the first letter of each word or of proper nouns of the section head
  • Sub-section heads should be flushed left


  • Number each table in numerical digits, followed by a colon and the title
  • Give each table an explicit title
  • Capitalise the first letter of each proper noun in the table title
  • Place the title of each table on top of the table
  • Do not use frequencies and percentages as separate columns in a table. Use percentages and indicate the sample size in brackets after the word percentage
  • Indicate borders of table row headings, subheadings sub-total and total
  • Type table(s) in exact text location(s)


  • Number each figure in numerical digit
  • Give an appropriate title to each figure
  • Capitalise the first letter of each noun in the figure title
  • Place the title of each figure below the figure

References and citations

Follow the style of the 7th edition of the American Psychological Association (APA)

The APA style is common in agricultural extension and is presented here. It should be noted that while the APA style changes over time (see APA Website for the latest information) Science publishers use variants that only approximate the current version. Depending on the style adopted or recommended by the publisher, institution/association or funding agency, the author must painstakingly maintain a high level of consistency. This can only be achieved through practice. The sample format below is taken from the 7th edition of the APA Website. You should make a habit of always consult the website to guide your citations and references


Sample Format for Reference List Based on the APA Style

(Most of the presentations here were taken from the APA website and from Gajjar, and Nagalpur, 2013). Please note the references used in this section are for illustration only.

  1. Authors

Write all authors’ names beginning with the surname(s), followed by their initials. If there is no author, place the title in the author position.


    1. One author: Qing, S. (2020) Gender role attitudes and males-female income differences in China. Journal of Chinese Sociology 7 (12) 1-23 020) 7:12
    2.  Two authors: Kehinde, A.D. & Ogundeji, A.A. (2022). The simultaneous impact of access to credit and cooperative services on cocoa productivity in South-western Nigeria. Agric & Food Security 11, 11 (2022).
    3.  3 to 20 authors (list all authors):  Lamastra, L., Balderacchi, M., Di Guardo, A., Monchiero, M., & Trevisan, M. (2016). A novel fuzzy expert system to assess the sustainability of the viticulture at the wine-estate scale. Science of the Total Environment, 572, 724–733.
    4. No author:  New Zealand’s ‘most instagrammed’ spot overrun by illegally parked cars. (2019, November 21). New Zealand Herald.
  1. Books
  1. Book without DOI

Author(s), year of publication, book title in italics, publisher


Barkway, D., & O’Kane, D. (2020). Psychology: Introduction for health professionals. Elsevier.

  1. Book with DOI

Author(s), year of publication, book title in italics


American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association: The official guide to APA style (7th ed.). DOI

Note: This example does not have a publisher as the publisher is the same as the author.

  1. Online book

Author(s), year of publication, book title in italics, publisher


National Health Committee. (2015). The introduction of fit-for-purpose omics-based technologies–Think piece. Ministry of Health. URL

Note: Include a DOI if one is given in place of the URL


  1. Books and e-books without DOI



Udoye, C. E. (2022). Training needs of pineapple farmers: How the use of ICT enhances production. Routledge

  1. Book Chapter (Chapter in an edited book)

Author, year of publication, chapter title, don’t forget “In” book editor(s), book title in italics.


  1. Chand, N. (2019). Standardized turmeric and curcumin. In R. C. Gupta, A. Srivastava, & R. Lall (Eds.), Nutraceuticals in veterinary medicine (pp. 3-24). Springer.
  2. Igbokwe, E. M. (2021). Concepts in rural and agricultural sociology. In: M. C. Madukwe (Ed.) Agricultural Extension in Nigeria. (pp 23-34). Agricultural Extension Society of Nigeria.

        Include a DOI after the publisher if available

  1. Scholarly Journals
  1. Journal Article in Print



Madukwe M. C. (2022). Rethinking agricultural extension in Nigeria: An insight into private sector approach. Journal of Extension, 13(1&2), 51-62.DOI (Include the DOI after the page numbers if one is available).

  1. Journal Article – Online without DOI

Author, year of publication, article title, journal title in italics, volume in italics, issue, pages


Stanton, R. (2019). Dyslexia and oral skills: A student’s journey. ATLAANZ Journal, 4(1), 55-70. URL

  1. Journal Article – Online with DOI

Author(s),  year of publication, article title, journal title in italics, volume in italics, issue, pages


Issel, L. M., Bekemeier, B., & Kneipp, S. (2012). A public health nurse research agenda. Public Health Nursing, 29(4), 330-342.

  1. Conference Papers


  1. Park, H. M. (2015, October). Moon-Young Lee's nonviolence and transcendence ethics in conflict management. Paper Presented at the 3rd Meeting and Mini-conference: Moon-Young Lee's Public Administration and Asian Democracy, Jeonju Traditional Culture Center, Jeonju, Korea. October 23, 2015.
  2. Park, H. M. (2015). Should e-government be transformational and participatory? An essay on e-government in the utilitarian mode of information technology use. Proceedings of the 48th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-48), Kauai, HI, January 5-8, 2015. 13.
  1. Magazine and Newspaper Articles

Author's last name, first initial. (Publication date). Article title. Periodical title, volume number (issue number if available), inclusive pages. Note: Do not enclose the title in quotation marks. Put a period after the title. If a periodical includes a volume number, italicize it and then give the page range (in regular type) without "pp." If the periodical does not use volume numbers, as in newspapers, use p. or pp. for page numbers.

When citing a URL or DOI of a magazine or newspaper, use “Retrieved from” in APA style.



  1. Kalette, D. (1986, July 21). California town counts town to big quake. USA Today, 9, p. A1.
  2. Smith, B. (2021, March). Sending money with a phone. Wireless Week, 14(6), 12-13. Retrieved from
  3. Fackler, M. (2022, April 24). Recriminations and regrets follow the suicide of South Korean. The New York Times. Retrieved from
  4. Abdullahi, Ahmed (2022). Any new direction in Nigeria’s agricultural development. Nation 135 Thursday, July 13, 2022, 16-19.


  1. Government/Agency Documents (Citing Report and Government Publication)


  1. Nations and American Society for Public Administration. (2002). Benchmarking e-government: A global perspective. New York: United Nations. Retrieved from
  2. S. Geological Survey. (1994). Relations of changes in wastewater-treatment practices to changes in stream-water quality during 1978-88 in the Chicago area, Illinois, and implications for regional and national water-quality assessments, by Paul J. Terrio. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of the Interior. Retrieved from
  3. Park, Hun Myoung. (2015). Has information technology competence ever increased? Evidence from the Annual User Satisfaction Survey of Information Technology Services (Economics and Management Series EMS-2015-03). Graduate School of International Relations, International University of Japan.
  4. Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) (2022). Bulletin of Statistics, 41st CBN, Abuja Nigeria.


  1. Dissertations and Thesis (Citing a Master’s Thesis or Dissertation).

You need to provide the author's name, publication date, sentence-cased title, type of material, and institute’s name. A type of material may be “PhD dissertation,” “PhD diss.,” or “master’s thesis.” A comma separates the type of material from the institute’s name. In APA, use “Unpublished doctoral dissertation” or “Unpublished master’s thesis” and a comma between the institution name and place (city)/country.


  1. Madukwe, M. C. (2022). Differential adoption of agricultural innovation in Nigeria (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
  2. Gbana, N. S. H. (2022). Technological capabilities of actors in maize innovation system in Adamawa and Taraba States, Nigeria . (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Taraba State University, Jalingo.
  3. Oludare, B. C. (2022). Land use and agricultural development among hill peoples in Western Nigeria. (Unpublished doctoral thesis). The University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria.
  1. Unpublished Papers and Reports


Agwu, A. E. (2021). Farmers’ perceptions of privatization of agricultural extension in  Nigeria. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Agricultural Extension Society of Nigeria, 3-6 April, Nsukka.

  1. Webpages
  1. Webpage with date

 Author, year of publication, web page title, website name, URL


Cuncic, A. (2021). The Mandela effect. Verywellmind.

  1. Webpage without date

Include (n.d.) in place of the publication date.

Author, no date, web page title, website name, URL


Kalter, L. (n.d.). Ducks & more: Animals offer flyers emotional support. WebMD.

  1. Periodicals

Monthly Periodical


  1. Chandler-Crips, S. (2021, May). Aerobic writing; a writing practice model. Writing Lab Newspaper, pp. 9-11.
  2. Buka T, (2021, July 13) Empowering farmers through Fadam programme. The Nation, pp .

Online Periodical

Author's name. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number, retrieved month day, year, from full URL.


Online Document

Author's name. (Date of publication). Title of work. Retrieved month day, year, from full URL

Note: When citing Internet sources, refer to the specific website document. If a document is undated, use "n.d." (for no date) immediately after the document title. Break a lengthy URL that goes to another line after a slash or before a period. Continually check your references to online documents. There is no period following a URL.



  1. Devitt, T. (2021, August 2). Lightning injures four at a music festival. The Why? Files. Retrieved January 23, 2022, from
  2. Dove, R. (2021). Lady freedom among us. The Electronic Text Center. Retrieved April 19, 2022, from Alderman Library, University of Virginia website:

Note: If a document is contained within a large and complex website (such as that for a university or a government agency), identify the host organization and the relevant programme or department before giving the URL for the document itself. Precede the URL with a colon.


  1. Hilts, P. J. (2020, February 16). In forecasting their emotions, most people flunk out. New York Times. Retrieved November 21, 2000, from
  2. Fredrickson, B. L. (2021, March 7). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment, 3, Article 0001a. Retrieved November 20, 2000, from
  3. GVU's 8th WWW user survey. (n.d.). Retrieved August 8, 2000, from
  4. Health Canada. (2020, February). The safety of genetically modified food crops. Retrieved March 22, 2005, from http://www.hc



  1. Encyclopaedia and Dictionary

Author's last name, first initial. (Date). Title of Article. Title of Encyclopedia (Volume, pages). City of publication: Publishing company.


  1. Bergmann, P. G. (2020). Relativity. In The new encyclopedia Britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.
  2. Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th Ed.). (2021). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
  3. Pettingill, O. S., Jr. (2021). Falcon and Falconry. World book encyclopedia. (pp. 150-155). Chicago: World Book.
  4. Tobias, R. (2021). Thurber, James. Encyclopedia Americana. (p. 600). New York: Scholastic Library Publishing.
  5. Stach, M. (2021). Boredom. In: The encyclopedia of useless knowledge (Vol. 13, pp. 123, 234).  Scotts valley, CA: Bethany press.
  6. Bergmann, P. G. (2021). Relativity. In The New Encyclopaedia Brittanica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopaedia Brittanica.


  1. In Case of No Author and Date

Title (sentence capitalization). (n.d.). …

Payment for Publication

Submission and review are at no cost to the authors. The cost of the review process is borne by Society.  However, authors of accepted articles are required to pay a publication fee of 50,000 Naira ($100). Authors of accepted articles that came through the annual or special conferences of the Society will be required to pay a publication charge of 25,000 Naira. The monies are specifically used to support part of the cost of publication, distribution of the hard copies of the Journal and related activities. 

Publication Fee Waiver and Discounts 

JAE has provision for a publication fee waiver and discounts for authors with demonstrated needs ( places in war crisis, prolonged natural disaster, physically challenged). Discounts vary from 10% to 50%. Application for waiver or discounts should be addressed to ( indicating the basis for the request.

For payments by authors within Nigeria (Naira)
Bank Name: Access Bank (Ilorin Branch)
Account Name: Agricultural Extension Society of Nigeria
Account Number, 0020725578

For payments by authors outside Nigeria (Dollar)
Pay through:

Citibank New York
111, Wall Street
New York
N Y 10043
ABA .I. D: 012-000-089

ACCESS Bank Nigeria


Name: Agricultural Extension Society of Nigeria
Name of Bank: Access Bank
Account Number: 0688190790