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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, or RTF document file format.
  • Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  • The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.
  • A plagiarism report indicating the name of the software used and the percentage of similarity
  • ORCID number included
  • A language editing software such as Grammarly was used in updating the language of the article using preferably the UK version of the English Language.

Author Guidelines

Guides to authors

Submission of manuscript

Authors are strongly advised to read the Journal policy and some recent publications of the Journal before writing or submitting an article to the Journal

Articles should be type-written in English, double-spaced on  A4 (210 by 297mm) paper and not more than 15 double-spaced pages, using one-inch margins with Arial Theme and 12-point, inclusive of references, tables, figures and appendixes. The abstract should not be more than 200 words. A maximum of three keywords. Articles should be uploaded on the Journal website ( JAE reserves the right to ask authors to shorten excessively long papers before they are entered into the review process. However, JAE recognizes that papers intended to make

very extensive contributions or that require additional space for data presentation or references may require more pages.

  • At the point of submission, each article should indicate the title
  • of the manuscript
  • Capitalise the first letter of each word of the title
  • At the point of submission do not include the author’s name, address, email and
  • phone number inside the manuscript to allow blind review. Include all the names of the authors and the associated information of each author on the metadata. JAE discourages the practice of including additional authors’ names after acceptance of an article.
  • Use English language software (UK version)  to update the language of the paper
  • After acceptance, include all the authors in the metadata inside the paper one by one indicating the name (surname, and first name in full), address, email, phone number, and ORCID number.
  • Type surname and other names in full followed by address below the title
  • Capitalise the first letters of each name
  • The names of the author(s) should be followed by other metadata information. See the recent publication of the Journalthe abstract and subsequent parts of the article.
  • Section heading
  • Capitalised only the first letter of each word or of proper nouns of the section head
  • Sub-section heads should be flushed left


  • Number each table in numerical digits, followed by a colon and the title
  • Give each table an explicit title
  • Capitalise the first letter of each propernouns in the table title
  • Place the title of each table on top of the table
  • Do not use frequencies and percentages as separate columns in a table. Use percentages and indicate the sample size in brackets after the word percentage
  • Indicate boarders of table row headings, subheadings sub-total and total
  • Type table(s) in exact text location(s)


  • Number each figure in numerical digit
  • Give an appropriate title to each figure
  • Capitalise the first letter of each nouns in the figure title
  • Place the title of each figure below the figure

References and citations

Follow the style of the 7th edition of the American Psychological Association (APA). The APA style is common in agricultural extension and is presented here. It should be noted that while APA style changes over time (see APA Website for the latest information) Science publishers use variants that only approximate the current version. Depending on the style adopted or recommended by the publisher, institution/association or funding

agency, the author must painstakingly maintain a high level of consistency. This can only be achieved through practice. The sample format below is taken from the 7th edition of APA Website. You should make a habit to always consulting the website to guide your citations and referencing

Sample Format for Reference List Based on the APA Style

(Most of the presentations here were taken from the APA website and from Gajjar, and Nagalpur, 2013). Please note the references used in this section are for illustration only.

  1. Authors

Write all authors‘ names beginning with the surname(s), followed by their initials. If there is

no author, place the title in the author position.


  1. One author: Qing, S. (2020) Gender role attitudes and males-female

income differences in China. Journal of Chinese Sociology 7 (12) 1-23

020) 7:12

  1. Two authors: Kehinde, A.D. & Ogundeji, A.A. (2022). The simultaneous

impact of access to credit and cooperative services on cocoa productivity

in South-western Nigeria. Agric & Food Security 11, 11


  1. 3 to 20 authors (list all authors): Lamastra, L., Balderacchi, M., Di

Guardo, A., Monchiero, M., & Trevisan, M. (2016). A novel fuzzy expert

system to assess the sustainability of the viticulture at the wine-estate

scale. Science of the Total Environment, 572, 724–733.

  1. No author: New Zealand‘s ‗most instagrammed‘ spot overrun by illegally

parked cars. (2019, November 21). New Zealand Herald.


  1. Books
  2. Book without DOI

Author(s), year of publication, book title in italics, publisher


Barkway, D., & O‘Kane, D. (2020). Psychology: Introduction for health professionals.






  1. Book with DOI

Author(s), year of publication, book title in italics


American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association: The official guide to APA style (7th ed.). DOI

Note: This example does not have a publisher as the publisher is the same as the


  1. Online book

Author(s), year of publication, book title in italics, publisher


National Health Committee. (2015). The introduction of fit for purpose omics-based

technologies–Think piece. Ministry of Health

think-piece URL

Note: Include a DOI if one is given in place of the URL

  1. Books and e-books without DOI


Udoye, C. E. (2022). Training needs of pineapple farmers: How use of ICT enhances

production. Routledge

  1. Book Chapter (Chapter in an edited book)

Author, year of publication, chapter title, don‘t forget ―In‖ book editor(s), book title in italics.


  1. Chand, N. (2019). Standardized turmeric and curcumin. In R. C. Gupta, A.Srivastava, & R. Lall (Eds.), Nutraceuticals in veterinary medicine (pp. 3-24). Springer.
  2. Igbokwe, E. M. (2021). Concepts in rural and agricultural sociology. In: M. C.

Madukwe (Ed.) Agricultural Extension in Nigeria. (pp 23-34). Agricultural

Extension Society of Nigeria.

Include a DOI after the publisher if available

  1. Scholarly Journals
  2. Journal Article in Print


Madukwe M. C. (2022). Rethinking agricultural extension in Nigeria: An insight into private sector approach. Journal of Extension, 13(1&2), 51-62.DOI (Include the DOI after the page numbers if one is available).

  1. Journal Article Online without DOI

Author, year of publication, article title, journal title in italics, volume in italics, issue, pages


Stanton, R. (2019). Dyslexia and oral skills: A student‘s journey. ATLAANZ Journal,

4(1), 55-70. URL

  1. Journal Article Online with DOI

Author(s), year of publication, article title, journal title in italics, volume in italics, issue, pages


Issel, L. M., Bekemeier, B., & Kneipp, S. (2012). A public health nurse research agenda. Public Health Nursing, 29(4), 330-342.


  1. Conference Papers


  1. Park, H. M. (2015, October). Moon-Young Lee's nonviolence and transcendence ethics in conflict management. Paper Presented at the 3rd Meeting and Mini-conference: Moon-Young Lee's Public Administration and Asian Democracy, Jeonju Traditional Culture Center, Jeonju, Korea. October 23,


Park, H. M. (2015). Should e-government be transformational and participatory? An essay on e-government in the utilitarian mode of information technology use. Proceedings of the 48th Hawaii International Conference on

System Sciences (HICSS-48), Kauai, HI, January 5-8, 2015. 13.


  1. Magazine and Newspaper Articles

Author's last name, first initial. (Publication date). Article title. Periodical title, volume number (issue umber if available), inclusive pages. Note: Do not enclose the title in quotation marks. Put a period after the title. If a periodical includes a volume number, italicize it and then give the page range (in regular type) without "pp." If the periodical  does not use volume numbers, as in newspapers, use p. or pp. for page numbers.

When citing a URL or DOI of magazine or newspaper, use ―Retrieved from‖ in APA style.


  1. Kalette, D. (1986, July 21). California town counts town to big quake. USA

Today, 9, p. A1.

  1. Smith, B. (2021, March). Sending money with a phone. Wireless Week, 14(6),

12-13. Retrieved from


  1. Fackler, M. (2022, April 24). Recriminations and regrets follow suicide of South

Korean. The New York Times. Retrieved from

  1. Abdullahi, Ahmed (2022). Any new direction in Nigeria‘s agricultural

development. Nation 135 Thursday, July13,2012, 16-19.

  1. Government/Agency Documents (Citing Report and Government



  1. Nations and American Society for Public Administration. (2002). Benchmarking e-government: A global perspective. New York: United Nations. Retrieved from
  2. S. Geological Survey. (1994). Relations of changes in wastewater-treatment practices to changes in stream-water quality during 1978-88 in the Chicago area, Illinois, and implications for regional and national water-quality assessments, by Paul J. Terrio. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of the Interior. Retrieved


  1. Park, Hun Myoung. (2015). Has information technology competence ever increased? Evidences from the Annual User Satisfaction Survey of Information Technology Services (Economics and Management Series EMS-2015-03). Graduate School of International Relations, International University of Japan.
  2. Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) (2022). Bulletin of Statistics, 41st CBN, Abuja


  1. Dissertations and Thesis (Citing a Master’s Thesis or Dissertation).

You need to provide the author’s name, publication date, sentence-cased title, type of a material, and institute‘s name. A type of a material may be ―PhD dissertation,‖ ―PhD diss.,‖ or ―master‘s thesis.‖ A comma separates the type of a material from institute‘s name. In APA, use ―Unpublished doctoral dissertation‖ or ―Unpublished master‘s thesis‖ and a comma between the institution name and place (city)/country.


  1. Yakubu, M. C. (2023). Differential adoption of agricultural innovation in Nigeria (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
  2. Gbana, N. S. H. (2023). Technological capabilities of actors in maize innovation

 system in Adamawa and Taraba States, Nigeria . (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Taraba State University, Jalingo.

  1. Oludare, B. C. (2022). Land use and agricultural development among hill peoples in Western Nigeria. (Unpublished doctoral thesis). University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria.
  2. Unpublished Papers and Reports


Agwu, A. E. (2021). Farmers‘ perceptions of privatization of agricultural extension in Nigeria. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Agricultural Extension Society of Nigeria, 3-6 April, Nsukka.

  1. Webpages
  2. Webpage with date

Author, year of publication, web page title, website name, URL


Cuncic, A. (2021). The Mandela effect.


  1. Webpage without date

Include (n.d.) in place of the publication date.

Author, no date, web page title, website name, URL


Kalter, L. (n.d.). Ducks & more: Animals offer flyers emotional support. WebMD.



  1. Periodicals

Monthly Periodical


  1. Chandler-Crips, S. (2021, May). Aerobic writing; a writing practice model. Writing Lab Newspaper, pp. 9-11.
  2. Buka T, (2021, July 13) Empowering farmers through Fadama programme. The Nation, pp .

Online Periodical

Author's name. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number,

retrieved month day, year, from full URL.

Online Document

Author's name. (Date of publication). Title of work. Retrieved month day, year, from full


Note: When citing Internet sources, refer to the specific website document. If a document is undated, use "n.d." (for no date) immediately after the document title. Break a lengthy URL that goes to another line after a slash or before a period.

Continually check your references to online documents. There is no period following a



  1. Devitt, T. (2021, August 2). Lightning injures four at music festival. The Why?

Files. Retrieved January 23, 2022, from

  1. Dove, R. (2021). Lady freedom among us. The Electronic Text Center. Retrieved

April 19, 2022, from Alderman Library, University of Virginia website:

Note: If a document is contained within a large and complex website (such as that for a

university or a government agency), identify the host organization and the relevant

programme or department before giving the URL for the document itself. Precede the

URL with a colon.

  1. Hilts, P. J. (2020, February 16). In forecasting their emotions, most people flunk

out. New York Times. Retrieved November 21, 2000, from

  1. Fredrickson, B. L. (2021, March 7). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize

health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment, 3, Article 0001a. Retrieved

November 20, 2000, from

  1. GVU's 8th WWW user survey. (n.d.). Retrieved August 8, 2000, from

  1. Health Canada. (2020, February). The safety of genetically modified food crops.

Retrieved March 22, 2005, from http://www.hc

  1. Encyclopaedia and Dictionary

Author's last name, first initial. (Date). Title of Article. Title of Encyclopedia (Volume,

pages). City of publication: Publishing company.


  1. Bergmann, P. G. (2020). Relativity. In The new encyclopedia Britannica (Vol. 26,
  2. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.
  3. Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th Ed.). (2021). Springfield, MA:


  1. Pettingill, O. S., Jr. (2021). Falcon and Falconry. World book encyclopedia. (pp.

150-155). Chicago: World Book.

  1. Tobias, R. (2021). Thurber, James. Encyclopedia Americana. (p. 600). New

York: Scholastic Library Publishing.

  1. Stach, M. (2021). Boredom. In: The encyclopedia of useless knowledge (Vol. 13,
  2. 123, 234). Scotts valley, CA: Bethany press.
  3. Bergmann, P. G. (2021). Relativity. In The new Encyclopaedia Brittanica (Vol. 26,
  4. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopaedia Brittanica.
  5. In Case of No Author and Date

Title (sentence capitalization). (n.d.). …



Payment for Publication

Submission and review are at no cost to the authors. The cost of the review process is borne by the Society. However, authors of accepted articles are required to pay a  publication fee of 50,000 ($100). Authors of accepted articles that came through the annual or special conferences of the Society will be required to pay a publication charge of 25,000($50). The monies are specifically used to support part of the cost of

publication, and distribution of the hard copies of the Journal and related activities.


Publication Fee Waiver and Discounts

JAE has provision for a publication fee waiver and discounts for authors with demonstrated needs (places in war crisis, prolonged natural disaster, physically challenged). Discounts vary from 10% to 50%. Application for waiver or discounts should be addressed to ( indicating the basis for the request.


For payments by authors within Nigeria (Naira)

Bank Name: Access Bank (Ilorin Branch)

Account Name: Agricultural Extension Society of Nigeria

Account Number, 0020725578


For payments by authors outside Nigeria (Dollar)

Pay through:

Citibank New York

111, Wall Street

New York

N Y 10043


ABA .I. D: 012-000-089



ACCESS Bank Nigeria


Name: Agricultural Extension Society of Nigeria

Name of Bank: Access Bank

Account Number: 0688190790


Peer Review Process

All articles submitted to the Journal undergo double-blind peer review. The reviewers have no access to the identity of the authors, and the authors do not know who the reviewers are. Members of the editorial team/board/guest editors are permitted to submit their own papers to the journal. In a situation where an author or authors are  associated with the journal, they will be removed from all editorial tasks for that paper

and another member of the team will be assigned responsibility for overseeing peer  review. A competing interest must also be declared within the submission. Each article on submission is reviewed for relevance to the scope of the Journal by the Editor-In-Chief. Articles are screened for plagiarism using the Turnitin programme with a maximum of 25% limit on similarity, for it to go into the review process. Articles that do not meet the basic criteria are rejected at this stage and authors are promptly informed. Articles that meet basic requirements are initially reviewed by at least two reviewers. The recommendation of the reviewers informs the decision of the editorial board to accept the conditions that the concerns raised by the reviewers

are addressed (the article is back to the authors to address the reviewers‘ concerns) or to reject. Where there is a notable disagreement between the reports of the two initial reviewers, a third reviewer may be consulted. JAE aims to have a first decision to the authors by 4-6 weeks after submission.


Plagiarism Policy

Plagiarism is unacknowledged copying or an attempt to misattribute original authorship, whether of ideas, text or results. Plagiarism can include, theft or misappropriation of intellectual property and the substantial unattributed textual copying of another's work.Plagiarism can be said to have clearly occurred when large chunks of text have been Cut and pasted without appropriate and unambiguous attribution. Such manuscripts

would not be considered for publication in a Journal of Agricultural Extension. Apart from wholesale verbatim reuse of text, due care must be taken to ensure appropriate attribution and citation when paraphrasing and summarising the work of others. Reuse of parts of text from an author's previous research publication is a form of self-plagiarism so, due caution must be exercised. When reusing text, whether from the author's own publication or that of others, appropriate attribution and citation are necessary to avoid creating a misleading perception of a unique contribution for the reader. Duplicate (or redundant) publication occurs when authors reuse substantial parts of their own published work without providing the appropriate references. This can range  from publishing an identical paper in multiple journals to only adding a small amount of

new data to a previously published paper. JAE editors assess all such cases on their individual merits through the review process. When plagiarism becomes evident post-publication, JAE may correct, withdraw the

original publication, or place the information on the community platform, depending on

the degree of plagiarism, the context within the published article and its impact on the

overall integrity of the published study.


Publication Frequency

The Journal publishes four issues in a year (January, April, July and October).


Open Access Policy

This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. JAE is an open-access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, crawl them for indexing,

pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. JAE supports free online communication and exchange of knowledge as the most

effective way of ensuring that the fruits of research and development practice are made widely available. It is therefore committed to open access, which, for authors, enables the widest possible dissemination of their findings and, for readers, increases their ability to discover pertinent information. The Journal adopts and uses the CC BY-NCND license. Under this license, users are permitted to copy and distribute the article



Licensing and Copyright

The Journal of Agricultural Extension adopts and uses the CC BY-NC-ND license. Under this license, the author retains copyright and users are permitted to copy and distribute the article (non-commercially). Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License, which allows others to share the work with an

acknowledgement of the work‘s authorship and initial publication in this journal. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal‘s published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository, in a journal or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their

work online (e.g., in institutional repositories, disciplinary repositories, or on their website) prior to and during the submission process.



Repository Policy

JAE encourages authors to freely deposit versions [submitted version, accepted version (author accepted manuscript), published version (version of record)] of their work in an institutional or other repository of their choice.



This Journal utilizes the CLOCKSS system to create a distributed archiving system among participating libraries and permits those libraries to create permanent archives of  the Journal for purposes of preservation and restoration. The Journal is also hosted and achieved on the website of the African Journal Online (AJOL)


Hosting and Abstracting

The Journal is online on the Journal of Agricultural Extension website ( and is hosted online by the African Journal-on-line at it is presently abstracted by EBSCO host Electronic Journals Service (EJS), Google Scholar, Journal Seek, Scientific Commons,

Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), the CAB Abstracts, Global Health Databases. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), and Scopus.


Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statement

Publishing in the Journal of Agricultural Extension, (JAE) involves the author, the journal editor, the reviewer, the Agricultural Extension Society of Nigeria and other key stakeholders and service providers. Each actor plays an important role in meeting the expected ethical standards at all stages from submission to publication of an article. The Journal of Agricultural Extension is committed to meeting and upholding standards

of ethical behaviour at all stages of the publication process. The Journal follows closely the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) set standards and provides guidelines for best practices in order to meet these requirements. The Journal subscribes to COPE‘s Code of conduct and best practice guidelines for journal editors. Below is a summary of the Journal key expectations of editors, peer-reviewers, authors, and the



Ethical Expectations


Editors’ responsibilities

 To act in a balanced, objective and fair way while carrying out their expected duties, without discrimination on grounds of gender, sexual orientation, religious or political beliefs, ethnic or geographical origin of the authors.

 To handle submissions for sponsored supplements or special issues in the same way as other submissions, so that articles are considered and accepted solely on their academic merit and without commercial influence.

 To adopt and follow reasonable procedures in the event of complaints of an ethical or conflicting nature, in accordance with the policies and procedures of the Society where appropriate. To give authors a reasonable opportunity to respond to any complaints. All complaints should be investigated no matter when the

original publication was approved. Documentation associated with any such complaints should be retained.


Reviewers’ responsibilities

 To contribute to the decision-making process, and to assist in improving the quality of the published paper by reviewing the manuscript objectively, in a timely manner

 To maintain the confidentiality of any information supplied by the editor or author. To not retain or copy the manuscript.

 To alert the editor to any published or submitted content that is substantially similar to that under review.

 To be aware of any potential conflicts of interest (financial, institutional, collaborative or other relationships between the reviewer and author) and to alert the editor to these, if necessary withdrawing their services for that manuscript.


Authors’ responsibilities

 To maintain accurate records of data associated with their submitted manuscript, and to supply or provide access to these data, on reasonable request. Where appropriate and where allowed by employer, funding body and others who might have an interest, to deposit data in a suitable repository or storage location, for

sharing and further use by others.

 To confirm/assert that the manuscript as submitted is not under consideration or accepted for publication elsewhere. Where portions of the content overlap with published or submitted content,  acknowledge and cite those sources. Additionally, to provide the editor with a copy of any submitted manuscript that might contain overlapping or closely related content.

 To confirm that all the work in the submitted manuscript is original and to acknowledge and cite content reproduced from other sources. To obtain permission to reproduce any content from other sources.

 Submission of an article to the Journal of Agricultural Extension is taken as a declaration and implies that the publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out.

 The Journal holds authors responsible for keeping to the highest ethics in publishing, particularly with fabrication, falsification and plagiarism.

 Authors should screen their articles for similarity and plagiarism indicating the programme used and the score.

 To declare any potential conflicts of interest (e.g where the author has a competing interest (real or apparent) that could be considered or viewed as exerting an undue influence on his or her duties at any stage during the publication process).

 To notify promptly the journal editor if a significant error in their publication is identified. To cooperate with the editor to publish an erratum, addendum, or corrigendum notice, or to retract the paper, where this is deemed necessary.


Publishers’ or Society’s responsibilities

 The Agricultural Extension Society shall ensure that good practice is maintained to the standards outlined under the ethical responsibilities above.

 The Agricultural Extension Society assures subscription to the principles outlined under ethical responsibilities above.


Procedures For Dealing with Unethical Behaviour


Identification of unethical behaviour

 Misconduct and unethical behaviour may be identified and brought to the attention of the editor and publisher at any time, by anyone.

 Misconduct and unethical behaviour may include, but need not be limited to, examples as outlined above.

 Whoever informs the editor or publisher of such conduct should provide sufficient information and evidence in order for an investigation to be initiated. All allegations shall be taken seriously and treated in the same way until a successful decision or conclusion is reached.



 An initial decision should be taken by the editor, who shall consult with or seek advice from the publisher, if appropriate.

 Evidence should be gathered while avoiding spreading any allegations beyond those who need to know.


Minor breaches

 Minor misconduct might be dealt with without the need to consult more widely. In any event, the author shall be given the opportunity to respond to any allegations.


Serious breaches

 Serious misconduct might require that the employers of the accused be notified. The editor, in consultation with the Society, shall make the decision whether or not to involve the employers, either by examining the available evidence themselves or by further consultation with a limited number of experts.


Outcomes (in increasing order of severity; may be applied separately or in conjunction)

 Informing or educating the author or reviewer where there appears to be a misunderstanding or misapplication of acceptable standards.

 A more strongly worded letter to the author or reviewer covering the misconduct and as a warning to future behaviour.

 Publication of a formal notice detailing the misconduct.

 Publication of an editorial detailing the misconduct.

 A formal letter to the head of the author‘s or reviewer‘s department or funding agency.

 Formal retraction or withdrawal of a publication from the journal, in conjunction

with informing the head of the author or reviewer‘s department, Abstracting & Indexing services and the readership of the publication.

 Imposition of a formal embargo on contributions from an individual for a defined period.

 Reporting the case and outcome to a professional organization or higher authority for further investigation and action.


Privacy Statement

The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.