Competing Interests Policy

A competing interest is anything that interferes with, or could reasonably be perceived as interfering with, the full and objective presentation, peer review, editorial decision-making, or publication of research or non-research articles submitted to JAE.

Competing interests can be financial or non-financial, professional, or personal. Competing interests can arise in relationship to an institution, organization, or another person.

Declaring all potential competing interests is integral to the transparent reporting of research and is a requirement at JAE.

Failure to declare competing interests can result in immediate rejection of a manuscript. If an undisclosed competing interest comes to light after publication, JAE will take action in accordance with COPE guidelines and issue a public notification to the community. 

What to Declare

Everyone involved in the peer review process, including authors, editors and reviewers, and readers, must declare all potentially competing interests that occurred within 5 years of conducting the research under consideration, or preparing the article for publication.

Interests outside the 5-year time frame must also be declared if they could reasonably be perceived as competing according to the definition above.

Financial competing interests

Financial competing interests as it relates to the field of agricultural extension include but are not limited to:

  • Paid employment or consultancy
  • Board membership
  • Research grants (from any source, restricted or unrestricted)
  • Travel grants and honoraria for speaking or participation at meetings
  • Gifts

Non-financial competing interests

Non-financial competing interests include but are not limited to: