Farmers’ Perception of Climate Change and Coping Strategies across Gender in Two Agro-Ecological Zones of Nigeria


  • Fadlullah Olayiwola Issa Department of Agric Extension & Economics, National Agricultural Extension and Research Liaison Services (NAERLS), Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
  • Bamidele Emmanuel Tologbonse NAERLS/ABU, Zaria
  • R Olaleye Federal University of Technology, Minna
  • O. M. Tologbonse Federal University of Technology, Minna
  • Joyce Hauwa Kagbu NAERLS, ABU, Zaria


Gender, Farmers Perception, Coping strategies, Climate Change, Agro-ecological Zone


This study conducted gender analysis of farmers’ perception of climate change and coping strategies in two agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. Two agro-ecological zones namely north-central and north-west were purposively selected and one State Agricultural Development Project each namely  Niger and Kaduna  were selected repectively. Structured questionnaire was used to elicit information from 140 respondents. Data were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Personal experience was the most prominent means through which  females (35.7%) and males (38.6%)  became aware of climate change. Majority of the females (85.7%)   and males (74.3%) in the north-central zone , started to notice the effect of climate change only about 1-5years ago. About 89% of males and 82% of females opined that yearly rainfull begins late. About 97% of the female and 99% of the males  were of the opinion that there had been  gradual reduction of vegetation cover. General perception by both females (mean=3.2)  and males (mean=3.2) was that climate change reduces the yield of crops, increase the cost of crop production and reduces the productivity of livestock and also time spent by the females to look for water for domestic use had increased. Chi-square analysis indicated positive and significant relationship between perception of climate change and  farm size (X2 = 4.1; p<0.05) in north- central and farming experience (X2 = 7.3; p<0.05) in north west zone. The results of t-test analysis showed significant difference between how the females and males perceived the effect of climate change with regards to rainfall ending early (t(138)=2.5; p<0.05) and time spent to look for water for cooking food has increased(t(138)=2.2;p<0.05). A multi-media enlightenment campagn of the effects and posssible coping strategies of climate change should be adopted by all tiers of government and NGOs to reach the farmers using  available extension structure on ground. Also, farming communities can run local disaster risk committees to encourage local adaptation measures as survival tactics for the purpose of ensuring food security.

Author Biography

Fadlullah Olayiwola Issa, Department of Agric Extension & Economics, National Agricultural Extension and Research Liaison Services (NAERLS), Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.

Extension Specialist


Agwu, J. and Okhimamhe, A.A. (2009). Gender and Climate change in Nigeria. A study of four communities in North-Central and South-Eastern Nigeria.. Heinrich Boll Stiftung. http.//
Apata, T.G, Samuel, K.D. and Adeola, A.O. (2009).Analysis of Climate Change Perception and Adaptation among Arable Food farmers’ in South Western Nigeria. Paper presented at the international Association of agricultural Economist’ Conference, Beijing, China, August 16-22, 15pp.
Bridge development gender (2008) Gender and climate change: mapping the linkages. A scoping study on knowledge and gaps. Institute of development Studies. 36pp
Brody, S.D., Zahran, S., Vedlitz, A., Grover, H., (2008). Examining the relationship between physical vulnerability and public perceptions of global climate change in the United States. Environment and behavior 40, 72-95.
CTA Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Co-operation (2009). Implication of Climate Change for sustainable agricultural production systems in ACP countries: Getting information and communication strategies right. A Compilation Document.
Davidson, D.J., Freudenburg, W.R., (1996). Gender and environmental risk concerns a review and analysis of available research. . Environment and behavior 28, 302-339.
Deressa, T.T. and Hassan, R.M. (2009). Economic Impact of Climate Change on Crop Production in Ethiopia: Evidence from cross-section measures. Journal of African Economies. Vol. 18 Number 4.pp529-554.
Food and Agricultural organization (FAO) (2009). Climate Change in Africa: The threat to Agriculture.
Gutu, T, Bezebih, E. and Mengistu (2012). Econometric analysis of local level perception, adaptation and coping strategies to climate change induced shocks in North Shewa, Ethiopia. International Research Journal of Agricultural science and Soil science. 2(8):347-363.
Hemmati, M., Röhr, U., (2009). Engendering the climate-change negotiations: experiences, challenges, and steps forward. . Gender & Development 17, 19-32.
International Food Policy Research Institute (2009). Climate Change: Impact on agriculture and costs of adaptation. Assessed: 10th January, 2010
Keller, E.F., (1985). Reflections on gender and science. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Kollmuss, A., Agyeman, J., (2002). Mind the gap: why do people act environmentally and what are the barriers to pro-environmental behavior?. Environmental education research 8, 239-260.
Kurukulasuriya, P. and R. Mendelson (2007). Endogenous Irrigation: The Impact of Climate Change on Farmers in Africa. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 427
IPCC (2007). "Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [M.L. Parry et al. (eds.)"]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., and New York, N.Y., U.S.A.. pp. 7–22. Retrieved 2009-05-20.
O'Connor, R.E., Bord, R.J., Fisher, A., (1999). Risk perceptions, general environmental beliefs, and willingness to address climate change. . Risk analysis 19, 461-471.
Rudof, W. Hermann,W. (2009). Climate risk and farming systems in rural Cameroon. Institute of Development and Agricultural Economics,University of Hannover, Germany pp21-24.
Sundblad, E.-L., Biel, A., Gärling, T., (2007). Cognitive and affective risk judgements related to climate change. Journal of Environmental Psychology 27, 97-106.
Tologbonse, E.B., Iyiola-Tunji, A.O., Issa, F.O., Jaliya, M.M., Daudu, C.K., Adedokun, I.K. and Okoro, B.O. (2011). Assessment of climate change adaptive strategies in small ruminant production in rural Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Extension. Vol 15 (2), 43-56.
Tologbonse,E.B, S.J Auta, T.D, Bidoli, M.M. Jaliya, R.O. Onu andF.o. Issa (2010). Farmers Perception of the effects of Climate change and coping strategies in Three Agro-Ecologocal zones of Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Extension. 14 (1):144-155.
World Health Organization (2013): Gender, Climate change and Health.




How to Cite

Issa, F. O., Tologbonse, B. E., Olaleye, R., Tologbonse, O. M., & Kagbu, J. H. (2015). Farmers’ Perception of Climate Change and Coping Strategies across Gender in Two Agro-Ecological Zones of Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Extension, 19(1). Retrieved from



General Extension and Teaching Methods